West Mountain Farm

Pastured Pigs, Free-Range Chickens, Biodynamic Gardening, Homesteading

Sprouts as Feed and Information on Anti-Nutrients in Grains

To vary your chickens’ diet, reduce your feed bill, and make your chicken and eggs more nutritious all sorts of extras can be added to their feed or by hand as treats. Eggs are not ‘ 100 % Organic’ if they are being fed commercial feed, even if they are local and free-range (although they will still be much better than store bought eggs). Feed can be eliminated or reduced by hand mixing grains, corn, oyster shells, and salt. The only local source I know of to buy organic pre-mixed feed is from Ozark Natural Feeds. Please speak with them for more information on their feed program.

In this post, the concentration will be on grains, legumes, and seeds. Chickens can eat them raw, soaked, or sprouted. Some require soaking and pouring the water off to remove the anti-nutrients and soften them, making them more digestible. Anti-nutrients? In the healthy bean, rice, or wheat?? Yes, all grains are seeds (but all seeds are not grains) and they have various anti-nutrients that help protect them from being eaten or helps them stay intact enough to still be viable after it passes from the gut of the perpetrator that just ate the plant or trees means of passing on its genetics. There are many types of anti-nutrients, and each grain or seed you choose to feed, or eat yourself, should be researched individually. These anti-nutrients are many reasons people choose to eat a Paleo diet.

Luckily, most seed eating birds have developed enzymes to combat some of the anti-nutrients found in many seeds (we will just say seeds for simplicity here, since all grains and legumes are the seeds of the plant). Simple soaking, cooking or sprouting can unlock the nutrients even more. Sprouting is quite simple, soak in water (I use warm water to speed up the process) for 5-24 hours, drain, and place in a cool dark place that has air circulation. I use multiple methods- a sprout jar, a crock with a towel or cheese cloth on top, a muslin bag for big batches, a plate with a towel on top, etc. Rinse every day (2-10 days) until they are the desired size, then a short sunbath (15-30 minutes) to activate the chlorophyll thus greening them up nicely. You can even pre-srout seeds before putting them in the garden. For more info on sprouting visit the Sprout People, as this post is only the tip of the sprouting iceberg. Here are some mung bean sprouts that are ready to eat over the next couple of days. We feed them to the chickens and eat them ourselves as well, especially in the dead of winter when greens are scarce.

IMG_3235

Bringing seeds to a rapid boil then simmering will often rid or reduce them of anti-nutrients, some people choose to dump the first batch of water in case some of the anti-nutrients don’t break down in high temps. I don’t because I don’t want to lose so much of the valuable nutrients, and I don’t have an anti-nutrient phobia.

Cooked legumes or rice are a favorite of chickens. You can even drizzle in some healthy oils if it has been very cold, chickens need extra fats and carbs in winter to stay healthy and continue laying eggs. If any of my pantry items (beans, rice, quinoa) get mealy bugs I will cook it up for the chickens. Adding kelp is also another huge nutrient boost. When feeding more of my own ‘chicken feed’ and when foraging is at its best I leave out a hopper of oyster shells and will soon be making one for salt.

Some seeds I frequently give my chickens are cooked rice, beans, barley, lentil, peas, amaranth, etc. Some soaked or sprouted seeds we enjoy are wheat berries, peas, lentils, kamut, alfalfa, oats, barley, flax, etc. Raw sunflower seeds, oats, and sesame are quickly pecked clean. Most of these can be given prepared (cooked or sprouted) or raw, except for amaranth it needs to be cooked. For sprouting purposed organic, raw seeds must be purchased. Play around with it, you will be amazed at the flavors and nutrient value of each seed in its different form. Pay attention when purchasing at the price per pound and quality.

Anti-nutrients is a highly debatable subject with much more research to be done, so a little investigation paired with common sense and these powerful foods can be added to you and your chickens (and your rabbits, dog, cat, etc.) diet.

 

*If you choose to completely quit commercial feed a more detailed plan will need to be followed to get optimal production out of your chickens.

 

Staying in the Loop

If you would like to stay up to date with post, product availability, and things happening around the farm the easiest way to do so would be to ‘follow’ this blog.  On the right hand side of the screen on  the home page is a +follow tab, click, enter your email address and you will be alerted via email new post. I will not sell or share your email, nor will your inbox be flooded. As a matter of fact, I post way too little, but hope to improve on that! My Facebook page will help keep you in the loop as well. Please feel free to comment on post, ask questions about how to do something, or a product you would be interested in purchasing. Have a Happy 2013!

IMG_3049

Eggs, Eggs, and more Eggs!!

IMG_3108

Farm Fresh Eggs

$3.00/dozen

Eggs are in season! $3.00 a dozen when bought from the farm or locally (I may at some point be selling at the farmer’s market and would have to adjust cost). My eggs are from my 60 free range chickens, they are fed mostly organic and 100% natural, high quality feed. They aren’t given any medication or antibiotics of any kind. They have a happy life, and in return enrich our lives and our bellies. We gather eggs daily and often. The nesting boxes are clean and cozy resulting in clean eggs, the flock is from NPIP (National Poultry Improvement Program) certified, and healthy. They get organic garden goodies, black oil sunflower seeds, kelp, and flax supplements, to raise omega contents in the eggs. They are also aesthetically pleasing and great for crafts. Blown eggs are for sale for 75 cents a piece, plus shipping if we can’t meet locally. Hatching eggs coming soon.

Dirty Old Egg Sucking Dog!

Nera

IMG_3120

My friend, flock protector, entertainment, eager to please, well-behaved border collie/chocolate lab dog. She is 5 years old this November, I bought her as a family christmas present and she has become a loyal companion. Her name is because since she was a pup, she always wanted to be near us. She does not get eggs out of the henhouse or kill chickens, but she knows she is allowed to eat the ones she finds in the woods. We are lucky to have her, a good dog starts with good genetics and develops from persistent care, companionship, and discipline.

Do you have an egg-sucking dog, or a dog that just likes to hang out in the coop and disturb your chickens? If a dog is utterly useless, a persistent problem, and not your best friend, I would consider re-homing, but sometimes we have to make adjustments for our furry or feathered friends. Cutting a triangle on your coop door can be a deterrence to dogs and other large predators. It even deters flying predators because they don’t like to feel trapped. My windows are designed to keep hawks from flying in, from above it doesn’t look open to them like your traditional windows that have hinges on the sides. These adjustments also give you more ventilation and temperature control options. In the winter you can keep the big door closed with the chicken door open.

IMG_3114       IMG_3111        IMG_3113        IMG_3112

*If you have children make it very clear that they are NOT to play in the windows, if they were to remove the wooden sticks that keep them open, they would get smashed head or fingers, same precautions need to be taken for adults! I’m sure some kind of safety option could be made by a creative carpenter. I use sticks of various lengths to prop open my windows, thus controlling the ventilation and temperature. In my opinion children shouldn’t be playing in the coop unsupervised unless they can be trusted (yeah that’s funny). They should beware of flogging roosters as well, and the coop is where someone is most likely to be flogged, as it is the roosters territory and they are protecting their hens.

Back to the chicken door, in the picture you should can see that we used a hinge at the top of the triangle, and a lock at the bottom (yes, it needs to be closed at night if you don’t have a secure chicken yard that closes up). I unlock it at the bottom, flip the door up, and I have a nail that has a hole that is just for it (a bit primitive, but it working for now). You may want to keep an eye on it when you first install it to be positive it isn’t going to fall, and make it where the chickens can’t get back in to lay.

Obviously, this only keeps out medium to large dogs, but I have yet to have a chihuahua get by my roosters, or even try, for that matter. This door option also helps the coop stay warmer in winter-time, be able to open it and ventilate more in the summer, and makes the hens feel more cozy, which reduces easter egg hunting year-round (yeah, that gets old). In this picture I am in the process of cleaning the coop, amending the gardens with the hay/straw/wood chip/manure bedding, and replacing it with new bedding. I practice the deep litter method, but more on that later. Good luck with an ornery dog, I’ve had to send a few to the big chicken house in the sky.

Cabbage

Flat Dutch Cabbage

MMMmm, cabbage and bacon drippings slow cooking in a cast iron dutch oven invoke childhood memories and the jokes that would come later! Cabbage is a beautiful cool weather plant that has the ability to feed a large family during times when fresh produce is in limited supply. The choices are quite wide: red, green, white, flat, round, pointed, smooth, crinkly, savoy, heading, and non-heading. So how do you get the cabbage in the pan? Cabbage, and other cruciferous vegetables, may be planted in spring or fall, usually 2-6 weeks before the last frost date or 6-12 weeks before the first frost date. I recommend starting out with healthy starts that are recommended for your zone, especially if you are in the south, you may not have time to sow the seeds in the garden before the heat sets in and ruins your crop. If you are in cooler zones self-sowing is most likely an option, just count out the ‘days to maturity’ located on the seed packet and plant when it will mature before the temps become consistently over 50-60 degrees or in the case of fall planting, before the temperatures are consistently below freezing. Most cabbages take 70-120 days to maturity. Soil amendment is high priority as cabbages are heavy feeders and prone to rot and head splitting. Good soil will have excellent tilth with rich organic matter that keeps the soil like a damp sponge, or moist and earthy like the forest floor after pulling back the top leaves. The soil shouldn’t be heavy and water logged or sandy and dry. It should have organic matter such as chopped up leaves, rotted manure (rabbit is my favorite), humus, compost, straw (especially old straw that was maybe once animal bedding), shredded black and white newspaper and cardboard, coffee grounds, egg shells, fruit and veggie kitchen scraps, cotton burr compost, etc. These things should be rotted and mixed in with the soil until they are hardly recognizable. Add soft rock phosphate for calcium and phosphorous, greensand for potassium, and bat guano or worm castings for nitrogen. All these amendments can be tweaked as long as you have a source of N-P-K, and heavy on the phosphorous and easy on the nitrogen. Plant the cabbage seedlings according to the spacing directions and if it says 30 inches apart don’t be tempted to squeeze them in tighter, they will fill in with proper care! ‘The farmer who sows lightly reaps heavy, the farmer who sows heavy reaps lightly.” Plant 3-4 per person in your household, or 6-8 if you plan on freezing or making sourkrout. A drip source irrigation makes for easier gardening and higher quality heads with less splitting. Mulch well with straw, and loosely cover with more straw or a cloche if temps are going to fall below 20. Decrease watering as heads mature to prevent splitting. If you have a very rainy season pull your mulch back on sunny days to prevent rotting, maybe even add some sand around the base. Harvest when heads are tight and at least 4 inches in diameter. Cut at the base leaving a few leaves and the roots and give the cabbage an opportunity to make another head. If you have a heavy freeze coming or the heat is about to set in, harvest most of your crop and wait, watch, and learn with at least one cabbage of each variety you planted. You may be surprised how well cabbage can withstand a freeze, it is quite fascinating to watch a frozen plant defrost and come back alive as the day warms up, or it may not. They have the ability to move water out of their cells for a short period of time, allowing for their continued survival. Special vigilance must be paid attention to pest, especially in the spring. The cabbage worm is easily controlled with DE mixed with BT (Bacillus Thuringiensis), which is a biologic insecticide and is harmless to most beneficials and all mammals. Letting wasp hang around are also very useful for caterpillar control. Aphids sometimes attack cabbages control options can be found on my organic pesticide post.

Speckled Sussex

Speckled Sussex

The speckled sussex is a hardy dual purpose breed that lays about 200+ light brown eggs a year when fed a well balanced diet and a constant supply of fresh clean water (as all animals need especially laying hens!). I ordered my current flock of chickens from Cackle Hatchery and this is what they have to say about them: “This chicken originated in the county of Sussex and is a very old English breed.  The Speckled Sussex chicken was recognized as a distinct breed in 1914.  The Sussex is a very gentle and colorful bird. This variety of the Sussex breed makes for a good backyard chicken and dual purpose for meat or egg production. This bird is a very good layer and handles confinement well.  Their speckled coloring makes them blend in with the background and camouflages them from predators such as coyotes, and foxes. They molt year and more speckles appear so they become even more colorful the older they get.”

The hens are around 7 pounds and the roosters around 9 pounds. They tend to take a little longer to mature than other similar classed breeds, 8-9 months versus 6-8 months. I do not use artificial lighting once the need for warmth is gone, until they are in their second season of producing, as I want them to mature slowly, I find they are hardier birds in the long run if given proper time to mature sexually and support egg-laying. In the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas we have hot humid summers and cold winters, they do well in both extremes. They also forage well and have a good feed conversion ratio. If you have a garden, flight ability is another thing to consider, they are too heavy to get over a 6 foot fence, which is a bonus if you want to have some tomatoes for yourself. Wing clipping is an option, which I avoid doing because I think they need the freedom to fly properly to run from predators and because it doesn’t feel right to clip a birds wings (there’s the hippy talking).

Over all, they are a highly recommended bird for the backyard poultry owner and pleasing on the eyes. Here is a picture of my rooster and one of my hens, they are 8 months old, and have not gone through a molt. They are laying daily and have almost reached their average weight. Rashie the roo is one of my dominant roosters out of the 8 I have, and he tends to be a bit cocky to everyone but me, he knows who is boss!

Fluffy Scrambled Eggs

Non-stick spray a small-medium sized pan with some depth (anything but teflon!) add a pat of butter (or two), while the pan is heating up and the butter is melting hand whisk up your eggs with milk, but don’t over whisk. Add no more than 5 teaspoons milk per egg (I eyeball it), the milk is the key to fluffiness as it creates steam pockets as the egg cooks. I cook 3 eggs per person who will be eating, this makes sure everyone is full and the dog may get some leftovers. Pour your eggs in the pan once it is heated, be careful not to overheat and burn your butter. Let the eggs begin to set up, then begin to gently fold and stir, waiting for the eggs to set up some before moving and mixing. Eggs taste best when care is taken to not overcook and left slightly moist. And a generous helping of fresh cracked blacked pepper!

If you want to spruce up your scrambled eggs add diced onions and/or peppers to the butter, let it saute a moment, maybe add some chopped meat (ham and bacon would be a favorite, strive for local humane sources) or mushrooms, then add your eggs, top with cheese near the end of cooking, and maybe some salsa if you like it spicy.

Remember, milk is the key to fluffy eggs, not beating the eggs to death.

Wheel Bug- a Beneficial Assassin

Arilus cristatus, The wheel bug is a carnivorous bug that preys on soft and hard bodied caterpillars and insects. It is easily identified by its wheel shaped armor and large mouthparts. It injects saliva that dissolves tissues making the insects edible. They can also inflict a painful bite and are best left alone in the garden or wild to do their job. They are found across North America. Here is a picture of the adult wheel bug eating a japanese beetle.

Image

Why I don’t wash my eggs….

Nature has a way of doing things right; and with small scale farming the human has a unique opportunity to go along with nature. When a hen lays an egg she coats it with an oil to protect the embryo from harmful things entering the egg (salmonella for instance), and to let the thousands of egg shell pores keep a correct oxygen and moisture balance. This coating is called the the ‘bloom’ I had no idea why it was called a bloom until I walked in the coop to gather an eggs on a cool sunny day, one of my buff orpington hens jumped out of a nest box singing her egg call, I looked in and saw a shiny egg, picked it up, before my eyes the coating dried, in a way that resembled a time lapse flower bloom. Where I had held the eggs with two fingers was my fingerprints left on the egg shell, where my interactions had interfered with natures bloom. Washing removes this coating and leaves the egg to lose its ‘freshness’ quicker and absorb refrigerator smells. The freshness of an egg is measured by its ability to hold together while frying, and beat into nice peaks for impeccable meringues and other culinary goodness. If washed,  the egg will age quicker because air will enter the egg, create a larger air sack, and the albumin (egg white) will break down quicker. No need to throw out older eggs use them for boiling or scrambling. Very fresh eggs are a frustrating to peel as the albumin is too tight against the shell, thus making them hard to peel, despite putting them in ice water. So fresh eggs for frying and baking, and older eggs for boiling. If you want to speed up the aging process because you want to make deviled eggs the next day, simply wash the eggs and leave them in room temperature for a day or so. CLEAN, unwashed farm eggs *may be safer from internal contamination of salmonella and other harmful organisms.

Image

So what does this mean if you keep your own chickens? Nest boxes clean and full of fresh bedding such as: straw, wood chips, hay, etc. Coop needs to stay clean as well so the birds aren’t walking in their own mess, either clean the coop regularly, till the coop, or practice deep litter method and clean twice a year. Gather the eggs at LEAST twice a day and refrigerate immediately, preferably in a separate freezer if you sell eggs, this will prevent eggs absorbing fridge odor. Sanitize re-used egg cartons. Keeping the fridge clean and sanitary is important as well. Keeping a clean and healthy flock (TPIP free) will give you piece of mind that its safe to lick the batter and have runny yolks.

Mexican Garden Burritos

Quick, light, and easy burrito recipe:

Tortillas

Tofu strips or a free range meat fried in oil cumin and paprika

Grated cheese

grated carrots

corn

black beans

bell pepper

sliced tomato

avocado

lettuce

cilantro

salsa

sour cream or plain yogurt

Heat up a healthy oil, fry your spices, add tofu strips to your hot oil/spices, build your burrito, fold and enjoy. Feel free to get creative with ingredients, and don’t stress if one ingredient isn’t in your pantry or garden. Get the freshest ingredients possible,  choose tortillas with no hydrogenated oils (whole wheat/sprouted grains is a plus), choose local/organic/environmentally friendly/humane ingredients as often as possible…you know the drill.

Some fresh baby star romaine, carrot, and cilantro for the burrito and apple slices for dessert

Post Navigation

mikethechickenvet

A chicken vet's perspective on the world

shanti fayetteville

yoga and inquiry

giantveggiegardener

—an artisan farmer's journey

Jörg David Photography

Canon-Photography, Animals, People, Travel, Landscape and more ...

frugalfeeding | Low Budget Family Recipes, UK Food Blog

n. frugality; the quality of being economical with money or food.

Seasonsgirl

For seasons of life, the changing seasons, and the seasoning we all love to cook with.

West Mountain Farm

Pastured Pigs, Free-Range Chickens, Biodynamic Gardening, Homesteading

Beyond Organics Farm

Pastured Pigs, Free-Range Chickens, Biodynamic Gardening, Homesteading

Dig In Festival

Pastured Pigs, Free-Range Chickens, Biodynamic Gardening, Homesteading

StreamingGourmet – The Blog

Pastured Pigs, Free-Range Chickens, Biodynamic Gardening, Homesteading

The WordPress.com Blog

The latest news on WordPress.com and the WordPress community.